type 2 diabetes | Symptoms Causes & Treatment

type 2 diabetes

Overview

The condition of Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in how our body controls and utilizes sugar (glucose) to fuel. The long-term (chronic) disease causes excessive sugar levels in the bloodstream. In the long run, elevated blood sugar levels could cause problems in the nervous, circulatory as well as immune system.

In the case of type 2 diabetes, there are two main interconnected problems that are at work. The pancreas isn’t producing enough insulin, a hormone that regulates the flow of sugar into your cells. The cells react poorly to insulin and take in less sugar.

Type 2 diabetes was previously called adult-onset diabetes but both type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes may begin in childhood and into later in adulthood. Typ 2 is more common among older adults, however, the rise in the number of obese children has resulted in more cases that are type 2 diabetes among younger individuals.

There’s no cure or cure for type 2 diabetes, however dropping weight, eating a balanced diet and exercising can help combat the condition. If exercise and diet aren’t enough to control your blood sugar levels, you might also require insulin therapy or diabetes medication.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes tend to appear gradually. In fact, you may be suffering from Type 2 Diabetes for a long time and not even realize it. If symptoms and signs are present, they might include:

  • More thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • More hunger
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Vision blurred
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Numerous infections
  • A tingling or numb feeling in your feet or hands
  • Darkened areas of skin typically in the armpits and neck

When is the best time to visit a doctor?

Consult your physician if you detect any indications or symptoms that suggest type 2 diabetes.

Causes

The condition is caused by two related issues:

  • Cells in muscles, fat, and liver cells become resistant to insulin. Since these cells aren’t interacting normally by interacting with insulin they can’t absorb enough sugar.
  • The pancreas isn’t able to make enough insulin to control glucose levels in the blood.

The exact reason for this is not known, however, the fact that you are overweight or inactive is the primary contributor.

How does insulin work?

Insulin is a hormonal substance that is produced by the gland that lies beneath and behind the stomach (pancreas). Insulin regulates the way that the body utilizes sugar by regulating the ways it uses:

  • The bloodstream is awash with sugar and triggers the pancreas’s release of insulin.
  • Insulin circulates through the bloodstream, which allows sugar to reach the cells.
  • Your blood sugar level decreases.
  • In response to this drop, the pancreas produces less insulin.

What is glucose’s role in the world?

Glucose, sugar is a major source of energy for muscles’ cells and various tissues. The regulation and use of glucose are as follows:

  • Glucose is found in two major sources including foods and the liver.
  • The sugar is absorbed by the bloodstream where it is absorbed into cells with the aid of insulin.
  • The liver stores and produces glucose.
  • If your blood sugar is low for instance, if you’ve not eaten for a while, the liver is able to break down glycogen stored into glucose in order to maintain your glucose levels within the normal level.

When you have type 2 diabetes this process fails. Instead of entering the cells of your body sugar is stored in the bloodstream. When blood sugar levels rise the beta cells that produce insulin inside the pancreas secrete more insulin. In time, these cells are impaired and are unable to produce enough insulin to satisfy the demands of the body.

In the less well-known type 1 diabetes the immune system erroneously eliminates beta cells which leave the body with very little or no insulin.

Risk factors

Factors that could raise your chances of developing type 2 diabetes are:

  • Weight. Being obese or overweight is the biggest risk.
  • Fat distribution. The fact that you store fat mostly in your abdomen — more than in your thighs and hips — suggests a higher risk. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases when you’re a male with an upper waist circumference of 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) or a woman who has an upper limit of 35 inches (88.9 centimeters).
  • Inactivity. If you’re not active, higher your chance of being ill. Physical activity can help manage your weight, makes use of glucose for energy, and makes cells more susceptible to insulin.
  • Family background. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased when a sibling or parent suffers from type 2 diabetes.
  • Ethnicity and race. While it’s not clear what causes it, people belonging to particular ethnicities and races -which include Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian peoples, as well as Pacific Islanders — are more likely to suffer from Type 2 Diabetes than whites are.
  • Blood levels of lipids. A higher risk of developing the disease is linked with the low level of HDL (HDL) cholesterol — also known as the “good” cholesterol — as well as high amounts of triglycerides.
  • Age. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes rises as you age particularly after age 45.
  • Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a disease where the blood sugar level of your patient is more than normal, but not enough to qualify as diabetes. If left untreated, prediabetes frequently leads to type 2 diabetes.
  • Pregnancy-related risks. Your chance to develop type 2 diabetes rises when you have developed gestational diabetes while pregnant or had a baby with a weight of over nine kilograms (4 kg).
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. The presence of polycystic Ovarian Syndrome enumeration of the condition, which is characterized by irregular menstrual cycle as well as excessive hair growth, and obesity can increase the risk of diabetes
  • Darkened areas of skin are typically in the armpits and neck. Often, this is an indication of insulin resistance.

Complications

Type 2 diabetes condition affects a variety of important organs, including the blood vessels, the heart eye, nerves, eyes, and kidneys. Furthermore, the factors that can increase the risk of developing diabetes can be risk factors for other serious chronic illnesses. The management of diabetes and the control of your blood sugar can decrease your risk of suffering from these issues or co-existing disorders (comorbidities).

Possible complications of diabetes, as well as frequent co-morbidities, are:

  • Blood vessel and heart disease. Diabetes is linked with a higher risk of stroke, heart disease high blood pressure, and a narrowing of blood vessels (atherosclerosis).
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy) in limbs. A prolonged period of high blood sugar may cause damage to or destruction of nerves that cause tingling, burning, numbness, or loss of sensation that typically begins around the tips of fingers or toes and then expands upwards.
  • Other nerve injuries. Nerve damage in the heart may cause irregular heartbeats. The digestive tract can lead to nausea diarrhea, vomiting, or constipation. For men, nerve damage may cause erectile dysfunction.
  • Kidney disease. Condition of diabetes can cause chronic kidney disease or irreversible end-stage kidney disease. This may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Eye damage. Diabetes can increase the risk of developing serious eye conditions like cataracts and Glaucoma. Additionally, it can cause damage to the blood vessels of the retina, leading to blindness.
  • Skin issues. Diabetes can make you at risk of skin conditions, including fungal and bacterial conditions.
  • Slow healing takes time. If not treated cut and blisters could be serious infections, and could not heal properly. In severe cases, injuries may need a foot, toe, or leg Amputation.
  • Hearing impairment. Hearing problems are more frequent in those with diabetes.
  • Sleep Apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common occurrence for people suffering from type two diabetes. Obesity could be the primary cause of both diseases. It’s unclear if the treatment of sleep apnea will improve glucose control.
  • Dementia. Diabetes type 2 appears to raise the chance of having Alzheimer’s disease, as well as other diseases which cause dementia. Insufficient control of blood sugar levels can lead to an increase in the speed of decline in memory as well as other thinking capabilities.

Prevention

Lifestyle changes that are healthy can help to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes this is true regardless of whether you have family members who have diabetes. If you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes, a change in lifestyle can slow or even stop the development of diabetes.

A healthy lifestyle includes:

  • Healthy eating is about having a balanced diet. Select foods that are lower in calories and fats and more in fiber. Choose fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Engaging in physical activity. Try to get 150 to 200 minutes per week of moderate or vigorous aerobic exercise, like cycling, walking and running, or swimming.
  • Losing weight. A small quantity of fat and maintaining it off can slow down the transition from prediabetes to Type 2 Diabetes. If you suffer from prediabetes, losing between 7% and 10 percent in body fat could decrease the risk of developing the disease.
  • Avoiding long periods of inactivity. Being seated for prolonged periods may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Try to rise each 30 min and get moving for at least a couple of minutes.

For those with prediabetes metformin (Fortamet and Glumetza other) is an oral medication for diabetes, is a medication that can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is typically prescribed to people over the age of 50 who are overweight and in a position to not lower blood sugar levels through lifestyle adjustments.

Diagnosis

Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed with the hemoglobin glycated (A1C) test. The test measures your blood sugar level in the last one to three months. The results are then interpreted according to the following:

  • Below 5.7 percent is considered normal.
  • 5.7 percent to 6.4 5.7% to 6.4 percent is regarded as prediabetes.
  • 6.5 percent or higher in two tests is a sign of the presence of diabetes.

When the A1C test isn’t readily available, or if you’re suffering from health conditions that hinder the A1C testing, then your physician could use these tests to identify diabetes:

Random blood sugar test. The blood sugar levels are reported as milligrams sugar/deciliter (mg/dL) (or millimoles per Liter (mmol/L) from blood. No matter when you last had a meal an e-cigarette, a reading at 200 mg/dL (11.1 Mmol/L) or more suggests the presence of diabetes, especially if are also experiencing symptoms and signs of diabetes, including frequent urination or extreme thirst.

Fasting blood sugar test. Blood samples will be taken following the overnight fast. The results are interpreted according to the following:

  • less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (5.6 millimol/L) is normal.
  • 100-125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mg/L) is considered to be prediabetes.
  • The level of glucose in a blood sample is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or more in two tests can be considered to be diabetes.

Test for oral glucose tolerance. This test is not as widely utilized as other tests that are available, except for pregnancy. It is necessary to fast for a night and then consume some sugary drinks in the office of your doctor. The levels of blood sugar are checked every two hours. Results are reported as follows:

  • less that 140 mg/dL (7.8 mg/L) is normal.
  • 140-199 mg/dL (7.8 mg/L to 11.0 mg/L) is a sign of prediabetes.
  • 200 mg/dL (11.1 mg/L) or higher after 2 hours of observation suggests the presence of diabetes.

Screening. Screening. The American Diabetes Association recommends routine screening that includes the diagnostic test for diabetes type 2 for all adults aged 45 or over and within the following categories:

  • Aged 45 and younger who are obese or overweight and who have some or all of the risk factors with diabetes
  • Women who have suffered from gestational diabetes
  • Patients are diagnosed as having prediabetes
  • Children who are obese or overweight and have an ancestral medical history with type 2 diabetes, or risk factors

After a diagnosis

If you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor or healthcare provider could conduct additional tests to differentiate between types 1 and 2 diabetes, since the two types of diabetes typically require different treatment.

Your physician will test your A1C amounts at least two times per year, and after any changes to your treatment. The A1C goal for your target can vary based on your age as well as other aspects. For the majority of people who are over age, the American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C below 7 percent.

Also, you’ll be given regular diagnostic tests to determine if you have complications from diabetes or comorbidities.

Treatment

The management of type 2 diabetes comprises:

  • Healthy eating habits
  • Regular exercise
  • Weight loss
  • It could be that diabetes medication is used or insulin therapy
  • Blood sugar monitoring

These steps can help keep your blood sugar levels close to the normal range and can help delay or even prevent problems.

Healthy eating habits

Contrary to popular opinion there isn’t a special diet for diabetes. It’s nevertheless important to focus your diet around:

  • A consistent plan for eating and healthy snacks
  • Smaller portions sizes
  • A greater amount of high-fiber food items include fruits, vegetables that are not starchy, and whole grains
  • A lower amount of refined grains starchy vegetables, and sweets
  • Small portions of dairy products that are low in fat, fish, and meats that are low in fat
  • Cooking oils that are healthy, like olive oil, canola oil
  • Fewer calories

Your doctor may suggest that you visit an experienced dietitian who can assist you in:

  • Choose healthy options among your preferences for healthful choices
  • Plan balanced, healthy meals
  • Make new habits and work on obstacles to altering habits
  • Keep track of your carbohydrate intake to ensure your blood sugar levels constant

Physical exercise

It is essential to exercise in order to lose weight and keep an ideal weight. It can also help regulate the levels of blood sugar. Consult your primary healthcare provider before beginning or altering your exercise routine to make sure that the activities you choose to do are safe for your health.

Aerobic exercise. Find an aerobic workout you like, such as biking, swimming, walking, or running. Adults should aim to do 30-minutes or longer of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise every day of the week. minimum 150 minutes per week. Children should get at least 60 minutes of moderate or vigorous aerobic exercise each day.

Resistance exercise. Resistance exercises increase your endurance, balance, and your ability to complete tasks that you do every day more easily. Resistance training can include yoga, weightlifting, and calisthenics.

Adults with type 2 diabetes must aim at two to three hours of resistance training every week. Children should participate in activities that increase the strength and flexibility of their bodies at least three times a week. This could include exercises for resistance as well as playing on equipment in the playground.

Limit inactivity. Breaking long periods of inactivity, like being at a desk will help you manage your blood sugar. Spend a few minutes to walk, stand or perform a little exercise at least every thirty minutes.

Weight loss

Weight loss can lead to improved control of cholesterol, blood sugar levels, triglycerides, blood pressure, and cholesterol. When you’re overweight, then you might be able to observe improvement in these areas when you lose as little as 5 percent or less of the weight you carry. But the greater the weight that you shed the more benefit you will receive to your health and management.

Your physician or dietitian can assist you to establish appropriate weight loss goals and help you make lifestyle changes that will help you to achieve them.

Monitor your blood sugar levels

Your physician will guide you on the frequency you should monitor your blood sugar levels to ensure that you are within your range of the target. You might, for instance, have to test the level at least once a day prior to or following exercise. If you’re taking insulin, you might have to check this several times throughout the day.

The monitoring is typically performed using an inexpensive, home-based device known as a blood glucose meter that analyzes the sugar levels that is present in the blood drop. Keep a log of your blood glucose levels for sharing with your health care provider.

Continuous glucose monitoring is a system that monitors glucose levels each minute by a sensor that is placed on the skin. The data can be sent through a cell phone, such as your smartphone or tablet, and the system will notify you when the levels are too high or low.

Diabetes medication

If you’re unable to keep your blood sugar goal by exercising and eating a healthy diet Your doctor might prescribe diabetes medication to lower the levels of insulin and insulin therapies. Treatments to treat type 2 diabetes consist of the following.

Metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, others) is typically the first prescribed medication for people suffering from type 2 diabetes. It is primarily used to reduce the production of glucose in your liver and improve the body’s insulin sensitivity so that the body can use insulin more efficiently.

A few people are deficient in B-12 and may require supplements. Other possible side effects that could improve with time may include:

  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea

Sulfonylureas aid in the production of more insulin. Examples include Glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase), Glipizide (Glucotrol), and Glimepiride (Amaryl). Potential side effects include:

  • Low blood sugar
  • Gain in weight

The pancreas is stimulated by glides to release more insulin. They are more effective than sulfonylureas. The time they’re able to exert their effects on the body is less. Examples include nateglinide and Repaglinide. The possible side effects are:

  • Low blood sugar
  • Gain in weight

Thiazolidinediones cause the body’s tissues to become more vulnerable to insulin. Examples include the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) as well as pioglitazone (Actos). The possible side effects are:

  • The risk of congestive heart failure
  • The risk of bladder cancer (pioglitazone)
  • The risk of fractures to bones
  • Cholesterol levels are high (rosiglitazone)
  • Gain in weight

DPP-4 inhibitors can lower blood sugar levels but typically have a small impact. Examples include sitagliptin (Januvia), saxagliptin (Onglyza), and linagliptin (Tradjenta). Potential side effects include:

  • The risk of pancreatitis
  • Joint pain

GLP-1 receptor agonists can be injected with drugs that can slow digestion and aid in lowering blood sugar. They are often linked to weight loss and some can reduce the chance of having a heart attack and stroke. Some examples include exenatide (Byetta Bydureon, exenatide) Liraglutide (Saxenda, Victoza), and semaglutide (Rybelsus Ozempic, Rybelsus). Potential side effects include:

  • The risk of pancreatitis
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea

SGLT2 inhibitors interfere with kidneys’ blood-filtering capabilities through preventing your kidneys from returning glucose into the bloodstream. In the end, glucose is excreted into the urine. These medications can lower the chance of having a stroke and heart attack for people who have an elevated risk of developing these diseases. For instance, canagliflozin (Invokana) dapagliflozin (Farxiga) and empagliflozin (Jardiance). Potential side effects include:

  • Amputations are a risk (canagliflozin)
  • The risk of fractures of the bone (canagliflozin)
  • The risk of gangrene
  • Vaginal yeast infections
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Low blood pressure
  • High cholesterol

Other medicines your doctor may prescribe along with diabetes medication include cholesterol-lowering and blood pressure medicines, as well as low dose aspirin, which can assist in the prevention of the development of blood vessel and heart disease.

Therapy with insulin

Certain people with type 2 diabetes require insulin therapy. In the past, the use of insulin therapy was in a last-resort manner but it’s now ordered earlier when blood sugar targets haven’t been satisfied with lifestyle changes and other treatments.

Different insulin types differ in how fast they begin working and the length of time they take to have an effect. Long-acting insulin for instance is designed to work during the night or all day to help keep blood sugar levels constant. Short-acting insulin is often used during meals.

Your physician will decide what kind of insulin is suitable for you and the time you can take it. The type of insulin you are prescribed, the dosage, and frequency may vary based on the stability of you are with your blood sugar. The majority of insulin types are administered by injection.

Insulin’s side effects include the possibility of having the blood sugar levels be low (hypoglycemia) and ketoacidosis due to diabetes and high triglycerides.

Weight-loss surgery

Weight-loss surgery alters the structure as well as the function of the digestive tract. It can help you shed weight and control type 2 diabetes as well as other obesity-related conditions. There are a variety of surgical procedures but they all aid in losing weight by restricting the amount of food you can consume. Some procedures restrict the number of nutrients you absorb.

Weight-loss surgery is just one element of a complete treatment program. Your treatment may also include the nutritional guidelines and diet as well as physical exercise, and mental health treatment.

In general, weight-loss surgery can be an option for people suffering from type 2 diabetes and the body mass index (BMI) at 35 and more. BMI is a measure that uses height and weight to calculate the body’s fat. Based on the severity of diabetes or any comorbid issues surgery could offer a solution for a patient who has a BMI of less than 35.

Weight loss surgery requires a lifetime commitment to changing your lifestyle. The long-term effects of the surgery include osteoporosis and nutritional deficiencies.

Pregnancy

Patients with type 2 diabetes are likely to have to alter their treatment regimens and follow a diet that controls carbohydrate consumption. A lot of women will require insulin therapy during pregnancy and might need to stop other treatments, including blood pressure medication.

There is a higher chance during pregnancy to develop diabetic retinopathy, or worsening in the quality of life. If you’re pregnant or plan to have a baby you should see an eye doctor during every trimester of your pregnancy 1 year after the birth or as directed.

The signs of trouble

Monitoring the levels of your blood sugar is crucial to preventing serious complications. Be aware of any signs or signs that could indicate an irregularity in blood sugar levels or the need to seek immediate attention:

Blood sugar levels are high (hyperglycemia). Foods that are consumed in excess or eating excessive amounts of food, getting sick, or not taking medication at the appropriate time can result in hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. Some signs and symptoms are:

  • Frequent urination
  • More thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Vision blurred
  • Fatigue
  • Headache

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS). A life-threatening condition is defined as an elevated blood sugar level of more than 600 mg/dL (33.3 mg/L). HHNS is more likely to occur if you suffer from an infection, aren’t taking medications as directed or if are taking certain medications or steroids which cause frequent urine. The symptoms and signs are:

  • Dry mouth
  • Extreme thirst
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion
  • Dark urine
  • Seizures

Diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition where the absence of insulin leads to your body breaking down fats for energy, rather than sugar. This causes a build-up of ketones, which are acids, within the bloodstream. The triggers for diabetic ketoacidosis are certain diseases such as pregnancy, trauma, and medication, including the diabetes drugs known as SGLT2 inhibitors.

While diabetic ketoacidosis is generally less than Type 2 Diabetes, the toxic effects of these acids could be life-threatening. Alongside the symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia, like frequent urination and a thirst that is greater ketoacidosis can cause:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Breathing problems
  • Fruity-smelling breath

A low blood sugar. When your blood sugar levels drop below your desired range, this is known by the term “low blood sugar” (hypoglycemia). The blood sugar level may decrease due to a variety of reasons like skipping meals taking medication that you aren’t aware of than normal, or performing more actively than usual. Some signs and symptoms include:

  • Sweating
  • Shakiness
  • Weakness
  • Hunger
  • Irritability
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Vision blurred
  • Heart palpitations
  • Speech that is slurred
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion

If you are experiencing indications or signs that suggest low blood sugar levels, drink or consume something that can quickly increase your blood sugar levels -such as fruit juice sugar tablets, hard candy, glucose tablets, or any other sugar source. Check your blood sugar levels in 15 minutes. If the levels aren’t at your goal, take another test. Take a break after the levels have returned to normal.

If you begin to lose consciousness You will have to receive an urgent injection of glucagon, which is a hormone that triggers the release of sugars into the blood.

Lifestyle and home solutions to home

A careful treatment of diabetes type 2 will decrease the chance of developing life-threatening complications. Check out these guidelines:

  • Be committed to controlling your diabetes. Know everything you can about Type 2 diabetes. Be sure to incorporate healthy eating and exercise as an integral part of your routine.
  • Join your team. Establish a connection to a diabetic educator and also ask your diabetes team for assistance when you require it.
  • You must identify yourself. Wear a necklace or a bracelet that states you live with diabetes, especially when you are taking insulin or any other blood sugar-lowering medications.
  • Plan a physical exam every year and regularly scheduled eye exams. Regular diabetes checks don’t substitute regular examinations for eye health or routine physicals.
  • Maintain your vaccinations up to the current. A high blood sugar level could weaken the immune system. Take a flu vaccine every year. Your physician may also recommend the vaccine. It is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also suggests the hepatitis B vaccination in the event that you’ve never received this vaccine and are from 19 to 59 years old.
  • Be sure to take care of your dental. Diabetes can make you more susceptible to more serious gum diseases. Make sure you floss and brush your teeth on a regular basis and schedule regular dental examinations. Contact your dentist immediately in the event that your gums start bleeding or appear as if they’re red or swelling.
  • Take note of your feet. Make sure to wash your feet every day with cool water, dry your feet gently, focus on between your toes, and apply lotion to them to moisturize them. Examine your feet daily for cuts, blisters or sores, redness, and swelling. See your physician for any sores or any other foot issue, not healing.
  • Maintain your cholesterol and blood pressure in check. Eating healthy food and regular exercise can be a big help in controlling cholesterol and blood pressure. Use the medication according to the instructions.
  • If you smoke or consume other kinds of tobacco, talk to your physician to assist you in quitting. Smoking cigarettes increases the chance of developing various complications with diabetes. Consult your doctor regarding ways to stop using cigarettes.
  • Use alcohol sparingly. According to the kind of drink you choose alcohol, it can decrease or increase glucose levels. If you decide on alcohol consumption, you should take it with food. The suggested limit is no greater than 1 drink per day for women, and not greater than 2 drinks a day for males. Make sure you check your blood sugar often after you have consumed alcohol.

Alternative medicine

Numerous alternative treatments claim to aid people with diabetes. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Studies hasn’t given enough evidence to suggest alternative treatments for managing blood sugar. Studies have revealed these results for popular supplements used to treat the treatment of type 2 diabetes

  • Supplements with chromium have been found to provide only a few advantages. Massive doses could cause damage to kidneys, muscle tissues, or skin reactions.
  • Magnesium supplements have been shown to be beneficial in controlling blood sugar levels in some, but in not every study. The side effects can include cramping and diarrhea. Extremely high doses — over 5,000 mg per day — could cause death.
  • Cinnamon, as a component in certain studies, has reduced fasting glucose levels, but it did not affect A1C levels. So, there’s no evidence that cinnamon has a positive effect on overall glucose management. The majority of cinnamon has a chemical known as coumarin. It can be a cause of liver disease or make it worse.

Consult your physician prior to taking a supplement to your diet or natural treatment. Don’t replace your prescription diabetes medication with a different one.

Support and Coping

The type 2 form of diabetes can be a grave condition, and adhering to your diabetes treatment program requires an all-hours-of-the-day commitment. To be able to meet the demands of managing diabetes it is possible that you will require an effective support system.

Depression and anxiety are typical for people with diabetes. Speaking to a counselor therapist can help you cope with the changes in your lifestyle or anxiety that come with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

Support groups can be a great source of information on diabetes, emotional support, and useful information on the best local resources and where you can find the carbohydrate count for your favorite restaurant. If you’re interested in joining, your healthcare provider might be able to recommend an organization in your region.

You can go to the American Diabetes Association website to lookup local events or support and group support for those who suffer from the type 2 form of diabetes. It also offers support groups for people with type 2 diabetes. American Diabetes Association also offers online information and forums where you can talk with other people who live with diabetes. You can also contact the association by dialing 800-DIABETES (800-342-2383).

Making preparations for your appointment

Making sure you attend your annual wellness check-ups will allow your doctor to check for diabetes and to track and treat many conditions that can increase your risk of developing diabetes — like high blood cholesterol, high pressure, or an elevated BMI.

If you’re visiting your health professional due to symptoms that could be caused by diabetes It is possible to make preparations for the appointment being prepared to answer these questions:

  • When did your symptoms begin?
  • Does anything help relieve symptoms or cause them to worsen?
  • What are the medicines you use often, such as dietary supplements or herbal treatments?
  • What are your usual daily meals? Do you eat meals between meals or just before bed?
  • How many ounces of alcohol do you consume?
  • How much exercise do you do?
  • Do you have a family past of diabetes in your family?

If you’re diagnosed as having diabetes, your healthcare doctor will start an intervention program. You may be referred to one who is specialized in hormonal issues (endocrinologist). Your care team could comprise of these specialists

  • Dietitian
  • Certified diabetes educator
  • Foot doctor (podiatrist)
  • A doctor who is specialized in eye health (ophthalmologist)

Ask your health care provider regarding the possibility of referrals to other specialists who can provide treatment.

Questions regarding ongoing appointments

Prior to any appointment with any member of the team that you are working with, be sure that you are aware of the restrictions like fasting prior to conducting tests. Questions you must regularly discuss with your physician or any other members of your team include:

  • When do I have to check my blood sugar levels and what is my goal interval?
  • What diet changes will help me control my blood sugar levels?
  • What is the proper dosage for prescription medications?
  • What time should I take the medication? Do I take them along with food?
  • How does the management of diabetes impact the treatment of other diseases? How can I manage my treatment or care?
  • What time do I have to set up an appointment to follow up?
  • In what circumstances should I contact you or seek out emergency assistance?
  • Are there any brochures or online resources you can recommend?
  • Are there any resources that can be found for me if I’m struggling to pay for diabetes-related items?

What can you be expecting from your doctor?

Your doctor will likely be able to ask you several concerns during regular appointments, such as:

  • Are you familiar with the treatment plan you have chosen and are you are able to follow it?
  • How do you manage the disease?
  • Are you experiencing any issues with low blood sugar levels?
  • Do you know what you should do in the event that your blood sugar level is excessively high or low?
  • What’s the typical day’s food like?
  • Are you exercising? If yes, what kind of exercise? How often?
  • Do you have to sit for prolonged times?
  • What are the challenges you face when controlling your diabetic condition?

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