type 1 diabetes | Symptoms Causes Treatment

type 1 diabetes

There is no insulin to allow glucose into cells in type 1 diabetes, so sugar accumulates in the bloodstream.


Type 1 diabetes also called juvenile diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is a persistent disease in which the pancreas is unable to produce no insulin. The hormone insulin is that’s needed for glucose (glucose) to be absorbed by cells and produce energy.

Many factors, including the genetics of some viruses and others, could contribute to the development of the type 1 form of diabetes. While type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood or during adolescence, however, it may develop later during adulthood.

Despite the ongoing research Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that does not have a cure. Treatment centers on controlling blood sugar levels by using insulin as well as diet and lifestyle changes to avoid the risk of complications.


Signs and symptoms may appear abruptly and include:

  • A rise in thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Children who didn’t have to wet their bed at night
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Other mood changes and Irritability
  • The weakness and fatigue of the body
  • Vision blurred

When should you see a doctor?

See your physician if you observe any of the following symptoms and signs in yourself as well as your kid.


The precise causes of type 1 diabetes aren’t known. The body’s immune system is normally fighting harmful viruses and bacteria are mistakenly destroying the insulin-producing (islet also known as islets from Langerhans) cells of the pancreas. Other causes could be:

  • Genetics
  • Exposition to viruses and other environmental triggers

The function of insulin

When a large percentage of islet cells have been destroyed, you’ll produce less to no insulin. It is a hormone that originates from a gland located just below and behind that stomach (pancreas).

  • The pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream.
  • Sugar enters cells through insulin circulation.
  • Insulin decreases the amount of sugar that is present in your bloodstream.
  • When your blood sugar levels decrease and so does the production of insulin by your pancreas.

What is glucose’s role in the world?

Sugar glucose is the main source of energy for muscles’ cells along with other types of tissues.

  • Glucose comes from two primary sources including the food you eat and also your liver.
  • Sugar is absorbed by the bloodstream where it gets into cells through the aid of insulin.
  • The liver stores glucose and stores it as glycogen.
  • When your blood glucose is low like the time you’ve not eaten for some time, your liver is able to break down glycogen stored in your body into glucose. This helps maintain your levels of glucose within the normal range.

As a result of type 1 diabetes, glucose cannot enter cells and accumulates in the bloodstream. This could lead to life-threatening complications.

Risk factors

Certain risk factors that are known to be associated with type 1 diabetes are:

  • Family background. Anyone who has an older sibling or parent with type 1 diabetes is at an increased chance of developing the disease.
  • Genetics. The presence of specific genes suggests an increased likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes.
  • Geography. The prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes tends to increase when you move away from the Equator.
  • Age. While type 1 diabetes may occur at any time, however, it is usually seen at two prominent peaks. The first peak is seen for children aged between the ages of 4 to 7 years old, and the second peak is for the children aged between 10 and 14 years old.


As time passes complications from type 1 diabetes can impact major organs in your body, including the heart blood vessels, nerves eyes, kidneys, and nerves. A healthy blood sugar level will dramatically decrease the chance of complications.

In the end, complications from diabetes can be life-threatening or disabling.

  • Heart and blood vessel diseases. Diabetes significantly increases the chance of suffering from various cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease that causes the chest (angina) and heart attack and stroke, as well as the narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure.
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy). Sugar can damage those walls that surround the blood vessels (capillaries) that supply the nerves of your body, particularly on the lower limbs. It can result in burning, numbness or tingling or pain that generally starts in the tip of the fingers or toes and then expands to the upper. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels could result in losing any sense of sensation in the affected parts of your body.
    Nerve damage that affects the gastrointestinal tract can lead to diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, or constipation. For males, Erectile dysfunction could be a problem.
  • Damage to the kidneys (nephropathy). The kidneys are home to thousands of blood vessels that remove out bloodborne waste. The effects of diabetes can harm the delicate system of filtering. Damages that are severe can result in kidney failure or irreparable end-stage kidney disease that necessitates dialysis or kidney transplant.
  • Eye damage. Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina (diabetic retinal disease) which could lead to blindness. The risk of diabetes also increases in developing other serious eye conditions like cataracts and glaucoma.
  • Foot damage. In the feet, nerve damage or the inability of circulation of blood to the feet increases the chance of developing foot problems. If left untreated burns and blisters may develop into serious infections that could eventually require foot, toe, or leg Amputation.
  • Conditions of the mouth and skin. Diabetes can make you more prone to infections of the mouth and mouth, such as fungal and bacterial infections. Dry mouth and gum disease are also more likely.
  • Pregnancy complications. Blood sugar levels that are high can be harmful to both the mother and baby. The risk of miscarriage birth defects and stillbirth rises when diabetes isn’t controlled. For mothers diabetics, it increases the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis, eye problems due to diabetes (retinopathy) as well as pregnancy-induced high blood pressure, and preeclampsia.


There’s no way to avoid the development of Type 1 Diabetes. However, researchers are working on ways to stop the condition from getting worse or further destruction of islet cells in those who are recently diagnosed.

Consult your physician to determine whether you are qualified for one trial to be sure to evaluate the benefits and risks of any treatment that is available in a clinical trial.


Diagnostic tests can include:

  • The Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test. This blood test will show the average blood sugar levels over the last 2 to 3 months. It determines the proportion of blood sugar bonded to the oxygen-carrying protein found in the red blood cell (hemoglobin). The more sugar in your blood is, the greater amount of hemoglobin you’ll have that has sugar connected. An A1C reading at 6.5 percent or greater on two separate tests is a sign of the presence of diabetes.

When the A1C test isn’t available or if you’re suffering from circumstances that render the A1C test unreliable (such as pregnancy or an unusual type of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) (hemoglobin variant) — your physician could use the following tests:

  • Random blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken at random and can be confirmed through repeated testing. Blood sugar levels are measured as milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL) (or millimoles) per Liter (mmol/L). Whatever time you last had a meal or ate, a blood sugar reading that is 200 mg/dL (11.1 mg/L) or more indicates the presence of diabetes, especially when it’s combined with any one of the symptoms or symptoms of diabetes, for example, frequent urination and excessive thirst.
  • Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken following the overnight fast. A blood sugar level that is fasting lower than 100 mg/dL (5.6 millimol/L) is considered to be normal. A blood sugar reading between 100 and 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered to be prediabetes. If the blood sugar is at 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or more on two different tests, you’re diagnosed with diabetes.

If you’ve been diagnosed as having diabetes, your physician might also conduct tests for blood to look for autoantibodies that are typical in the type 1 form of diabetes. These tests aid your doctor to determine the difference between type one and 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is not clear. Ketones’ by-products of the metabolism of fat in your urine indicate type 1 diabetes not type 2.

Following the diagnosis

Your doctor will visit you regularly to discuss the management of diabetes. At these appointments, the doctor will assess the A1C level of your blood. The target A1C target may differ based on your age as well as other variables, but it is generally recommended that American Diabetes Association generally recommends that A1C levels should be less than 7 percent, which corresponds to an estimated glucose level of 154 mg/dL (8.5 mg/L).

In contrast to the repeated tests of blood sugar levels, A1C testing better indicates the extent to which your diabetes treatment plan functions. An A1C reading that is elevated could indicate the need for changes to your food regimen, insulin regimen, or both.

Alongside aside from the A1C test, your doctor will also draw regular urine and blood samples to assess your cholesterol levels and thyroid function, kidney function, and liver function. Doctors will check you to determine your blood pressure, examine the locations that examine your blood sugar levels, and administer insulin.


The treatment to treat type 1 diabetes comprises:

  • Utilizing insulin
  • Protein, fat, and carbohydrates counting
  • Frequent blood sugar monitoring
  • Healthy eating
  • Maintaining an ideal weight

The aim is to maintain your blood sugar levels within the normal range possible in order to avoid or delay complications. The goal is generally to maintain your blood sugar levels prior to meals between 80-130 mg/dL (4.44 to 7.2 mg/L) and after-meal levels less than 180 mg/dL (10 mg/L) 2 hours after you eat.

Insulin and various other medications

Anyone suffering from type 1 diabetes must receive constant insulin therapy.

The types of insulin available are numerous and include:

  • Insulin that is short-acting (regular) insulin
  • Insulin with rapid-acting properties
  • Inter-acting (NPH) insulin
  • Long-acting insulin

Short-acting (regular) insulin are Humulin R as well as Novolin R. Insulin that acts quickly examples include insulin glulisine (Apidra) as well as insulin Lispro (Humalog) along with insulin as part (Novolog). Long-acting insulins are insulin glargine (Lantus, Toujeo Solostar) and insulin detemir (Levemir) and insulin degludec (Tresiba). In intermediate-acting insulins, you can find insulin NPH (Novolin N Humulin N, Novolin N).

Insulin administration

Insulin isn’t a medicine that can be taken orally to reduce blood sugar because stomach enzymes can destroy insulin, stopping its effects. It’s necessary to get it through injections or via an insulin pump.

  • Injections. You can utilize the fine needle and syringe as well as an insulin pen for injecting insulin beneath the skin. Insulin pens resemble ink pens and come as refillable or disposable varieties. If you opt for injections then you’ll probably need an assortment of insulin types that you can use during the day and at night. Many daily injections that contain long-acting insulin and rapid-acting insulin are more closely mimic the body’s natural use of insulin than earlier insulin regimens which only needed one or two shots per day. A schedule consisting of at least three insulin injections per day has been proven to increase blood sugar levels.
  • An insulin pump. It is worn by you that’s about as big as a cell phone located on the external side part of the body. The tube connects a reservoir of insulin with a catheter placed underneath the abdomen’s skin. The type of pump could be carried in various ways, including around your waist, in your pocket, or on specially-designed belts for pumping.
    There’s an option for a wireless pump. Wearing a device that contains the insulin reservoir in your body. It has tiny catheters that are put underneath the skin. The insulin pod is placed on your abdomen, lower back, arm, or leg. The program is performed using a wireless device that connects to the insulin pod.
    Pumps are programmed to release precise amounts of rapid-acting insulin in a controlled manner. The steady amount of insulin is referred to in the name of your basal rate and is the replacement for any long-acting insulin that you had previously used.
    After eating when you eat, the pump is programmed according to the number of carbs you’re eating as well as your blood sugar level and it’ll provide you with an insulin bolus to fill you up and to lower the blood sugar level if it’s high. Certain studies have shown that for some individuals, an insulin pump is more effective in managing the levels of blood sugar than injectables. However, many people can achieve high blood sugar levels by injecting them as well. An insulin pump in conjunction with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) device could help with even more precise monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Artificial pancreas

September of 2016 In September of 2016, The Food and Drug Administration approved the first artificial pancreas designed for those with type 1 diabetes who are 14 or older. The second artificial pancreas has been approved in the month of December 2019, but it was not approved until December.

It’s also known as closed-loop insulin delivery. The implanted device connects the continuous glucose monitor which monitors glucose levels in the blood every five minutes and the insulin pump. The pump automatically releases the right amount of insulin whenever the monitor shows that it is needed.

There are several artificial pancreas (closed-loop) systems being tested in clinical studies.

Other medicines

Additional medications can also be prescribed to patients with Type 1 Diabetes, for example:

  • Medicines for high blood pressure. Your doctor may prescribe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to help keep your kidneys healthy. These drugs are suggested for those with diabetes who have blood pressures of 140/90 millimeters (mm Hg).
  • Aspirin. Your doctor might suggest taking a baby or regular aspirin each day to safeguard your heart, If your doctor believes that you are at risk of a cardiovascular event after having discussed with you the possibility of bleeding.
  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs. Guidelines for cholesterol tend to be more strict for those with diabetes due to the higher risk of developing heart disease. According to the American Diabetes Association recommends that low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol be lower than 100 mg/dL (2.6 mg/L). High-density lipoprotein (HDL also known as “good”) cholesterol is advised to be at least 50 mg/dL (1.3 millimol/L) for women, and above 40 mg/dL (1 1 mmol/L) for males. Triglycerides, a different type of blood fats, are best when they’re lower than 150 mg/dL (1.7 millimol/L).

Blood sugar monitoring

Based on the type of insulin therapy that you choose or need depending on the type of insulin therapy you choose, you might have to record and monitor your blood sugar levels at least four times each day.

It is recommended that the American Diabetes Association recommends testing blood sugar levels prior to eating and snacking, prior to going to bed, prior to exercising or driving, or if you suspect that you are suffering from low blood sugar levels. Monitoring your blood sugar levels with care will be the best way to be certain that the blood glucose is within your desired range — and frequent testing can reduce A1C levels.

Even if you are taking insulin and follow the same timetable blood sugar levels may change unpredictably. You’ll discover the ways in which your blood sugar fluctuates depending on the food you eat, your activity or illness, medication and hormone changes, stress, and alcohol.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is the most advanced method to track blood sugar levels. It can be extremely beneficial in the prevention of hypoglycemia. The devices have been found to decrease A1C.

Continuous glucose monitors are attached to the body via tiny needles that are placed just beneath the skin, which monitors the level of blood glucose every few minutes. CGM isn’t yet as reliable as traditional glucose monitoring for blood, therefore at the moment, it’s vital to monitor the levels of your blood sugar by hand.

Dietary health and the monitoring of carbohydrates

There’s no such thing as a diabetic diet. It’s crucial to focus your diet around healthy, low-fat, high-fiber foods like:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Whole grains

The dietitian you consult with will suggest you avoid eating animal products as well as refined carbohydrates such as sugar and white bread. This diet plan for healthy eating is suggested even for those with diabetes.

It is important to know how to determine the number of carbohydrates present in the food you eat, to supply yourself with enough insulin in order to efficiently process those carbohydrates. A registered dietitian will help you develop a menu that meets your needs.

Physical physical

Everyone should be exercising regularly and those who suffer from type 1 diabetes aren’t exempted from this. Start by getting your doctor’s permission to exercise. Choose activities that you like for example, swimming or walking, and incorporate them into your routine. Make sure you get a minimum of 150 mins of aerobic activity each week, but not more than two consecutive days of any form of exercise. The ideal for children is at least one hour of physical activity every day.

Keep in mind that physical exercise lowers blood sugar levels. If you start an activity that you are not familiar with, be sure to check your blood sugar more frequently than you normally do until you are aware of how the activity impacts your blood sugar levels. It is possible that you will need to alter your food regimen or insulin doses to accommodate the increase in activities.

Concerns about the situation

Certain situations in life call for various aspects.

  • Driving. The condition can be present anytime. It’s recommended to monitor your blood sugar levels before driving. If your blood sugar is lower than 70 mg/dL (3.9 millimol/L) Take a break that contains 15 grams of carbs. Check it again in 15 minutes to ensure that it is at an acceptable level.
  • Working. Type 1 diabetes may present some issues at work. For instance, if perform a job that requires you to drive or operate large machinery, hypoglycemia may be a risk for the people around you. You might need to collaborate with your doctor and employer to ensure that specific modifications are provided, like extra breaks during blood sugar tests and rapid availability of food or beverages. There are both state and federal laws in force which require employers to provide reasonable accommodations for those suffering from diabetes.
  • Being pregnant. Because the chance of developing pregnancy complications is higher in women who suffer from Type 1 Diabetes, doctors advise women undergo an examination prior to conception and that A1C levels should be lower than 6.5 percent before they try to become pregnant.
    The risk of developing birth defects is greater when women suffer from type one diabetes especially when the diabetes condition is not controlled in the initial 6-8 weeks after conception. Careful management of your diabetes during pregnancy can reduce the chance of developing complications.
  • Being older. If you are frail or sick or suffer from cognitive problems, strict monitoring of blood sugar levels may not be feasible and may increase the chance of developing hypoglycemia. For many patients with the type one diabetes condition, a more moderate A1C goal that is below 8% could be the best option.

Future treatment options

  • Pancreas transplant. After a successful pancreas transplant, it would be no longer require insulin. But, transplants to the pancreas aren’t always successful, and they carry significant dangers. Since these risks are more hazardous than diabetes itself the procedure is generally reserved for people with difficulty managing diabetes, or those who require an organ transplant.
  • Islet cells transplantation. Researchers are studying islet transplantation, which can produce new insulin-producing cells using the pancreas of a donor. Although the procedure has had certain issues in the past, modern methods and improved medications to avoid islet cell rejection could boost the likelihood of it becoming a treatment that works.

The signs of trouble

Even with all your efforts, there are times when problems can occur. Some short-term complications associated with type 1 diabetes-like hypoglycemia, for instance, require immediate attention.

Blood sugar levels are low (hypoglycemia). It occurs when the blood sugar level is below the target range. Discuss with your doctor what constitutes as low blood sugar levels for you. The levels of blood sugar can fall because of a variety of causes, such as not eating a meal, having fewer carbs than you’re supposed to in your diet plan, engaging in more active than usual, or injecting excessive insulin.

Know the signs of hypoglycemia. Test your blood sugar levels if you suspect that your levels are falling. If you are unsure, always check your blood sugar levels. The first signs and symptoms for low blood sugar are:

  • Sweating
  • Shakiness
  • Hunger
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Heart rate irregular or rapid
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Vision blurred
  • Irritability

Other signs and symptoms of low blood sugar levels that could be misinterpreted as alcohol-related intoxication among teens and adults are:

  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Changes in behavior, often dramatic
  • Poor coordination
  • Convulsions

Nighttime hypoglycemia can cause you to awake in sweaty pajamas or headache. Because of the natural rebound effect, hypoglycemia at night can lead to an abnormally high blood sugar reading the first early in the morning Also known as the Somogyi effect.

If you’re experiencing the following blood sugar levels:

  • Take 15-20 grams of quick-acting carbohydrates such as sugar tablets, juice from a fruit hard candy, and normal (not diabetic) soda, or any other sugar-rich food source. Do not eat foods with added fat, which do not increase blood sugar as fast since fats slow sugar absorption.
  • Check your blood sugar level within 15 minutes to confirm that it’s in the normal range.
  • If it’s still low add another 15 or 20 grams of carbohydrates and take another test in 15 minutes.
  • Repeat until you reach an average reading.
  • Take a mix of foods including crackers and peanut butter, to assist in stabilizing blood sugar levels.

If a blood glucose monitor isn’t in your possession, take care to treat any blood sugar issues when you experience symptoms of hypoglycemia. take a test as soon as you can.

If left untreated, low blood sugar can result in a loss of consciousness. If this happens you might require an immediate injection of glucagon, a hormone that triggers an increase in sugar levels within the blood. Always keep an unopened emergency kit of glucagon at work, at home, and even when you’re on the go. Be sure that your coworkers or family members know how to utilize the kit in the event you’re unable to administer an injection.

Hypoglycemia unawareness. Certain people might have difficulty recognizing the fact that blood sugar levels may be going low, which is known as hypoglycemia ignorance. The body does not react to a drop in blood sugar level through symptoms like lightheadedness, or headaches. If you are experiencing frequent low blood sugar levels, the more likely you will be to be prone to developing hypoglycemia apathy. If you are able to avoid an episode of hypoglycemia for a few weeks, you could begin to notice imminent lows. Sometimes, increasing your blood sugar threshold (for instance, moving from 80-120 mg/DL to 100-140 mg/DL) at the very least, temporarily, may aid in reducing hypoglycemia-related awareness.

A high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). The blood sugar level can increase due to a variety of reasons, such as eating excessively, eating improper types of food, being in a state of not getting enough insulin, or fighting a disease.

Be on the lookout for:

  • Frequent urination
  • A rise in thirst
  • Vision blurred
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Hunger
  • It is difficult to concentrate

If you suspect you’re suffering from hyperglycemia test your sugar level in the blood. If the blood sugar levels are above your desired range it’s likely that you’ll require a “correction” — an additional dose of insulin that will return your blood sugar to normal. The levels of blood sugar that are high don’t fall as fast as they rise. Consult your physician about how long to be patient until you can check again. If you have an insulin pump the occasional spikes in blood sugar could suggest that you should alter the size of the pump.

If your blood sugar level is higher than the level of 240 mg/dL (13.3 mmol/L) Test for ketones by using a urine test stick. Do not exercise if your blood sugar is higher than that level or if ketones are detected. If just tiny amounts or traces of ketones are detected you should drink more fluids to flush out ketones.

When your sugar level is consistently at or above 300 mg/dL (16.7 mg/L) or if urine ketones continue to be excessive despite correcting the appropriate doses of insulin. Call the doctor, or go to urgent medical attention.

Increased levels of ketones found in urine (diabetic ketoacidosis). In the event that your cells have been hungry to fuel, the body could begin to break down fat producing harmful acids that are known as ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis could be a fatal situation that requires immediate attention.

The symptoms and signs of this serious disease Include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • A fruity, sweet scent on your breath
  • Weight loss

In the event that you think ketoacidosis is a possible test of your urine for excess ketones use an over-the-counter ketones testing kit. If you notice a large number of ketones present in the urine, consult your doctor immediately or seek out emergency medical assistance. Additionally, you should contact your doctor if you’ve frequent vomiting and ketones are present in your urine.

Lifestyle and remedies for home use

A careful treatment of diabetes type I will lower the risk of life-threatening complications. Check out these guidelines:

  • Take a vow to control your diabetes. Use your medication as directed. Know everything you can about Type 1 diabetes. Be sure to make exercise and eating healthy an integral part of your routine. Develop a relationship with an educator for diabetes and also ask your health care provider to help.
  • You must identify yourself. Wear a bandana or tag which states that you suffer from diabetes. Have a kit for glucagon on hand in the event of a low blood sugar crisis and ensure your family members and family members know how to make use of it.
  • Make a plan for yearly physical exams and regularly scheduled eye exams. The regular checkups for diabetes aren’t intended to replace annual examinations for eye health or routine exams. During your physical the doctor will check for any complications related to diabetes and look for any other medical issues. Your eye specialist will examine for signs of retina damage, cataracts, and Glaucoma.
  • Make sure your vaccines are up to the current. The high blood sugar levels can affect immunity. Take a flu vaccine every year. Your physician will most likely suggest the pneumonia vaccine and.
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests the hepatitis B vaccination if you’ve not already been vaccinated against Hepatitis B when you’re an adult aged 19 to 59 who suffers from either type 1, or 2 type diabetes. The CDC suggests vaccination as early as you can after being diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes or type 2. If you’re age 60 or over and suffer from diabetes, but haven’t received the vaccine, consult your doctor regarding whether it’s appropriate for you.
  • Take note of your feet. Make sure to wash your feet every day with the water that is lukewarm. Dry them with a gentle touch, particularly between your toes. Massage your feet with lotion. Make sure to check your feet on a regular basis for any cuts, blisters and sores, redness, or swelling. See your doctor if you suffer from a swollen or other foot-related issue that doesn’t heal.
  • Maintain your cholesterol and blood pressure in check. By eating healthy and doing regular exercise can help in controlling cholesterol and blood pressure. The need for medication may be necessary as well.
  • If you smoke, or consume other types of tobacco, you should ask your physician for help to stop. Smoking cigarettes increases the chances of developing complications from diabetes such as stroke, heart attack nerve damage, kidney disease. Consult your physician about ways to stop smoking , or to cut down on other types of tobacco.
  • If you drink alcohol, do so responsibly. Alcohol can trigger low or high blood sugar levels, based on the amount you drink as well as if you eat food at with it. If you decide to drink, drink in moderation and only during an eat. Examine the levels of your blood sugar prior to getting ready to go to bed.
  • Stress is a serious issue. The hormones your body could produce as a result of prolonged stress could hinder insulin’s ability to function efficiently, which could cause be stressful and frustrating more. Reconsider your position, and set some boundaries. Prioritize your tasks. Learn relaxation techniques. Sleep well.

Support and Coping

The effects of diabetes can affect your mood directly and indirectly. A poorly controlled blood sugar level can affect your mood directly by causing behavioral changes, for example, irritation. You may experience times when you are angry about your diabetes.

Diabetes sufferers are at an increased risk of developing depression and anxiety related to diabetes, which could be one reason reason why many diabetes specialists incorporate psychologists or social workers in their diabetes management team.

You might find it helpful to talk with other people who have type 1 diabetes are beneficial. Support groups are offered on the internet as well as in person. The members of these groups are usually aware of the most recent treatments and are more likely to share their experiences, or provide helpful details, like the best places to look up carbohydrate counts at your favorite takeaway restaurant.

If you’re looking to join an organization for support or a support group, your physician may be able to suggest an organization in your region. You can also check out their websites at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) or the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) for information on support groups and for a list of activities in your area for people suffering from Type 1 Diabetes. You can also contact at the ADA by calling 1-800-DIABETES (800-342-2383) as well as the JDRF by calling 800-533-CURE (800-533-2873).

You are preparing for your appointment

If you are concerned that you or your child may be suffering from type 1 diabetes be evaluated right away. An easy blood test will tell your doctor that you require further examination and treatment.

Following diagnosis, you’ll require regular medical monitoring until your blood sugar levels stabilize. A specialist with hormonal conditions (endocrinologist) typically manages diabetes care. Your health care team could comprise:

  • Certified diabetes educator
  • Dietitian
  • Mental health or social worker
  • Pharmacist
  • Dentist
  • Certified diabetes educator
  • A doctor who is specialized in the field of eye care (ophthalmologist)
  • The doctor that specializes in foot and ankle health (podiatrist)

Once you’ve grasped the basics for managing diabetes type 1, your endocrinologist will suggest a check-up every couple of months. A thorough annual exam, as well as regular eye and foot examinations, are also important, especially if you’re having a difficult time controlling your diabetes, or if you suffer from hypertension or renal disease, or when you’re pregnant.

These suggestions can assist you in planning your appointments and help you know what you can expect from your physician.

What you can do

  • Record all questions you have when they arise. When you start treatment with insulin, the first signs of diabetes should disappear. But, there could be new issues you have to address, for example frequent episodes of low blood sugar or how to manage the issue of high blood sugar following eating certain food items.
  • Record important personal information that includes any major stressors or life-changing events. Numerous factors can affect the control of diabetes, such as stress.
  • Create a list of every vitamin, medication, and other supplement you’re taking.
  • For regular checkups, you should bring a journal that contains your glucose levels or your meter with you to your appointment.
  • Note down any questions you want you’d like to inquire with your doctor.

Making a list of questions will assist you in making the most of your visit with your doctor and other members of the health team. For those suffering from type 1 diabetes, questions you should discuss with your dietitian, doctor, or diabetes educator are:

  • Monitoring blood glucose is a continuous process that includes frequency, timing, and duration. sugar monitoring
  • Insulin therapy — the types of insulin used, times of dosing, dosage dosing
  • Insulin administration shots against the pump
  • Low blood sugar levels -How to spot and treat it
  • High blood sugar levels -the signs to look out for and how to treat it?
  • Ketones Testing and treatment
  • Types of foods and their impact on blood sugar
  • Carbohydrates count
  • Exercise — adjust the intake of insulin and food for the level of activity
  • Management of medical conditions — how often should you visit the doctor, and other specialists in diabetes care
  • Management of sick days

What should you be expecting from your doctor?

Your doctor will likely be able to ask you many questions, such as:

  • How well are you in managing diabetes you suffer from?
  • How often are you experiencing high blood sugar levels?
  • Are you aware of the signs that your blood sugar level is becoming low?
  • What’s the typical day’s food like?
  • Are you exercising? If yes, how often?
  • On average how much insulin do you take in a day?

What can you do during the interim

If you’re experiencing issues managing your blood sugar levels, or are unsure, don’t hesitate to get in touch with your health team during your appointments.


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