Obesity | Symptoms Causes Treatments and more



Obesity is an intricate condition that causes an excessive quantity of fat. Obesity isn’t just about cosmetics. It’s a medical issue that can increase the likelihood of developing other illnesses and health problems like diabetes, heart disease, excessive blood pressure, and some cancers.

There are many causes why certain people struggle to lose weight. Most often, it is due to genetic, physiological, or external factors, which are paired with physical activity, diet, and fitness options.

The positive side is that even small weight loss can help improve or stop the health problems that are associated with being overweight. An improved diet increased physical activity, and behavioral modifications can help you shed weight. The use of prescription drugs and weight loss procedures are also options to treat weight gain.


BMI or Body Mass Index (BMI) is commonly used to identify overweight. To determine BMI multiplied weight of 703 by weight, then divide with height inches, and after that divide again by the height in inches. or divide kg weight by the height by meters.

BMIThe weight status
Below 18.5Underweight
30.0 and aboveObesity

Asians who have a BMI 23 or more may be at an increased risk of developing health issues.

In the majority of cases, BMI provides a reasonable estimation for body weight. But, BMI does not directly quantify body fat, therefore certain people, like athletic athletes, might have a BMI within the category of obesity regardless of having excessive body fat.

A lot of doctors also take a look at the circumference of a person’s waist to guide treatments. Health problems related to weight are more prevalent in males who have a waist circumference of more than 40 inches (102 centimeters) and in women who have an average waist measurement of 35 inches (89 centimeters).

When is the best time to visit a doctor?

If you’re worried about your weight or related health issues, talk to your physician about weight management. Both you and your physician will evaluate the health risks you face and discuss options for weight loss.


While there are behavioral, genetic, and hormonal effects on the body’s weight, obesity is a result when you consume excess calories off through regular activities and exercises. The body stores this extra weight as fat.

In the United States, most people’s diets are excessively packed with calories, typically from fast food and drinks that are high in calories. The obese may consume more calories prior to feeling full, or feel more hungry and hungrier, or eat more because of anxiety or stress.

A lot of people living in Western nations now work in jobs that are not as physically demanding, which means they don’t burn more calories while working. Even activities that are routinely performed consume fewer calories because of the modern conveniences like remote controls and escalators, shopping online, and drive-through banking.

Risk factors

Obesity typically results from the combination of contributing causes and causes:

Inheritance from family members and influence

The genes that you inherit from your parents could influence the amount of body fat you store and the way that it is located. Genetics can be a factor in the speed at which your body converts energy from food as well as how your body regulates your appetite , and the way that you burn calories when you exercising.

Obesity runs within families. This isn’t just due to the genes that they share. Family members are also likely to have similar food and exercise habits.

Lifestyle options

  • Unhealthy eating habits. A diet that’s filled with calories, lacking in vegetables and fruits filled with fast food, and loaded with drinks that are high in calories as well as large portions can lead to weight increase.
  • Calories from liquids. People can drink numerous calories without feeling full, particularly the calories that come from alcohol. Other drinks that are high in calories like sugar-based soft drinks, may result in significant weight gain.
  • Activity. If you have a lifestyle that is sedentary it is possible to absorb more calories each throughout the day, than what you use off through exercises and other routine activities. Watching TV, computers, and smartphone screens is an activity that is considered sedentary. The amount of time spent looking at the screen is closely related to weight increase.

Certain conditions and medications

For some overweight, it is possible to trace the cause to a medical reason like Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing syndrome and other ailments. Health issues, like arthritis, can also cause a decrease in activity that can result in an increase in weight.

Certain medications can result in weight gain if you do not make up for it through exercise or diet. This includes antidepressants and anti-seizure medicines and diabetes medicines as well as antipsychotic medicines such as steroids, beta blockers, and steroid.

Economic and social issues

Economic and social aspects are associated with the problem of obesity. It is hard to avoid obesity in the absence of safe places to exercise or walk. In addition, you might not be taught healthy methods of cookingor might not have access to healthy foods. Additionally those who you hang out with could affect your weight; you are more likely to be affected by overweight when you have relatives or friends who have obesity.


Obesity can happen at any age, and even when children are young. However, as you get older hormonal changes and being less active make it more likely that you will be overweight. Furthermore muscles your body decreases as you the passage of time. The general rule is that a lower amount of muscle results in a decline in metabolic rate. This can also decrease calorie requirements and make it more difficult to keep off weight gain. If you’re not conscious of your diet and get healthier and more active with get older then you’ll probably gain weight.

Other elements

  • Birth. Weight gain is normal during pregnancy. Women who are overweight may find it difficult to shed once birth. The weight gain could cause overweight in women.
  • Smoking less. Quitting smoking is frequently linked to weight increase. In some cases people, it could cause sufficient weight gain that it is considered obese. It is common for this to happen when people eat to deal with withdrawal symptoms from smoking. In the long term the decision to stop smoking cigarettes will provide a much greater overall health benefit than continuing smoking. Your physician can assist you to avoid weight gain after stopping smoking.
  • Sleep deprivation. Not getting enough sleep or too much rest can trigger changes in hormones that boost appetite. There is also a tendency to want foods with a lot of calories and carbohydrates and can cause weight increase.
  • The stress. Many external factors that impact mood and well-being could contribute to the development of obesity. People are more likely to consume more calories food items when they are in stressful situations.
  • The microbiome. Your gut bacteria are influenced by the food you consume and can be a factor in weight gain or difficulties in losing weight.

If you don’t have any of the risk factors listed above it doesn’t mean you’re bound to get overweight. You can mitigate the risk factors by eating a healthy eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly and exercises, as well as behavioral changes.


The obese tend to suffer from several serious health issues, which include

  • Heart strokes and heart disease. Obesity makes you more likely to suffer from elevated blood pressure as well as abnormal cholesterol levels, both of which are potential risk factors for heart diseases and strokes.
  • Diabetes type 2. Obesity can affect the way that the body utilizes insulin to regulate the blood sugar level. This increases the risk of developing insulin resistance and the development of diabetes.
  • Certain types of cancers. Obesity may increase the chance of developing cancer in the uterus, the cervical region endometriumand ovary. Breast colon, rectum the gallbladder, liver, esophagus pancreas, kidney, and prostate.
  • Digestive issues. Obesity increases the chances for developing gallbladder diseases and liver issues.
  • Sleep Apnea. People with obesity are more likely to develop sleep apnea. This is a serious condition where breathing stops and then resumes in sleep.
  • Osteoarthritis. Obesity puts more stress on joints that bear weight and can also cause inflammation in the body. These causes can lead to problems such as osteoarthritis.
  • COVID-19 severe signs and symptoms. Obesity increases the likelihood of experiencing severe symptoms when you are infected with the virus which causes coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). The patients who suffer from severe COVID-19 symptoms may require the treatment of intensive care units or mechanical support to breathe.

Qualitative of Life

Obesity may affect the general quality of your life. You might not be able to perform the physical activities you once enjoyed. It is possible to avoid public spaces. Obese people may be subject to discrimination.

Other weight-related issues that could influence your lifestyle are:

  • Depression
  • Disability
  • Shame and guilt
  • Social isolation
  • Lower work achievement


For the purpose of determining obesity, the doctor will generally take a physical exam and may recommend certain tests.

The tests and exams generally consist of:

  • Reviewing your health record. Your doctor may examine the history of your weight, weight loss efforts in addition to your exercise and physical activity habits food patterns, appetite control, any other medical conditions you’ve faced and the effects of medications as well as stress levels and other health issues. Your doctor might also look over the health history of your family to determine if you could be predisposed to certain diseases.
  • An all-encompassing physical examination. This includes measuring your height; observing vital indicators, like blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature taking note of your lungs and heart; and looking at your abdomen.
  • The calculation of the BMI. Your doctor will examine the BMI, or body mass index (BMI). A BMI greater than 30 is considered to be overweight. If you have a BMI that is higher than 30, it increases your risk of developing health problems even more. The BMI of your body should be assessed every year at a minimum as it will help you identify your overall health risk and the treatments that are suitable.
  • The measurement of the circumference of your waist. Fat stored around the waist often referred to as visceral fat, or abdominal fat can raise the chance of developing heart diseases and type 2 diabetes. Women who have the measurement of their waist (circumference) greater than 35ins (89 centimeters) and males who have a measurement greater than 40 inches (102 centimeters) might be more at risk for the risk of developing health problems than those who have smaller waist measurements. Similar to the BMI measurement the waist circumference should be measured every year, at a minimum.
  • Looking for other health issues. If you have identified health issues the doctor will assess the severity of these issues. The doctor will also look for any health issues that may be present including high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure as well thyroid underactivity liver issues, diabetes, and other liver disorders.

This information can assist you and your doctor decide on the treatment that is most effective for you.


The aim of treatment for obesity is to achieve and remain at an ideal weight. This enhances general health and reduces the chance of developing health complications associated with weight gain.

You might need to collaborate with a group of health professionals — such as the dietitian, a counselor for behavioral issues, and an expert in obesity to help you comprehend and alter your lifestyle and eating practices.

The primary goal for treatment is usually a moderate weight loss of between 5% and 10 percent of your weight. This means that If you weigh 200lbs (91 kilograms) it is necessary to shed 10-20 pounds (4.5 to 9 kilograms) in order for your health to start to improve. But greater the weight that you shed more weight you shed, the more benefits.

Every weight loss program requires changes to your eating habits as well as increased physical exercise. The method of treatment suitable for you will depend on the degree of obesity you have the overall health of you and your commitment to participating in the weight loss program you have chosen.

Food changes

Cutting down on calories and implementing healthy eating habits are essential in beating the problem of obesity. While you might lose weight quickly in the beginning gradual weight loss, in the long run, is believed to be the most secure way to lose weight and is the best method to ensure it stays off for the long term.

There is no perfect weight-loss diet. Pick one that has healthy food choices that you believe are beneficial for you. Changes in diet to help combat obesity are

  • Cut down on calories. The key to losing weight is to reduce the number of calories you consume. First, look over your usual drinking and eating habits to determine the number of calories you consume and the areas you could cut down. Your doctor and you can decide on the number of calories you should consume every day to lose weight but the typical range is 1200-1500 calories for women and 1,500-1,800 for males.
  • Feeling fuller with lesser. Some foods -like candies, desserts, and processed food items have a significant amount of calories for a small amount. Contrarily fruit and vegetables can provide an increased portion size and lower calories. When you eat more portions of food items with fewer calories you can reduce the urge to eat and consume fewer calories and feel satisfied with the food you eat, which can contribute to your satisfaction all over.
  • Make healthier decisions. To make you healthy, you should eat more plant-based meals like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Make sure to include proteins that are lean -like lentils, beans, and soy — as well as lean meats. If you enjoy fish, you should include fish two times every week. Reduce the amount of added sugar and salt. Consume small amounts of fats. Make sure they’re from sources that are healthy for your heart like canola, olive, and oil from nuts.
  • The restriction of certain foods. Certain diets limit the amount of food in a certain food group, like full-fat or high-carbohydrate foods. Discuss with your doctor what diet plans work and may be helpful for you. Consuming drinks that are sweetened with sugar is an easy way to consume much more calories than planned. Eliminating these drinks or limiting them completely is a great starting point to cut down on calories.
  • Meal substitutes. These plans suggest substituting two or three meals with their products, like low-calorie shakes or meal bars. Then, consume healthy snacks, and the third meal that’s not high in calories and fat. In the short run, this kind of diet may aid in losing weight. However, these diets don’t show you how to alter your lifestyle. You may need to stick with the diet if you wish to lose weight.

Be wary of fixes that are quick and easy. You might be lured by diets that claim to provide quick and simple weight loss. However, the truth is that there aren’t any magical food items or quick solutions. Some diets are effective in the short term however the long-term effects do not appear to be much more effective than other diets.

Similar to this, you might lose weight following the crash diet, however, you’re more likely to gain it after you cease the diet. In order to lose weight and keep it off it’s important to establish healthy eating habits that you will be able to maintain throughout the course of time.

Activity and exercise

The increase in physical activity or exercise is a crucial aspect of treatment for obesity:

  • Exercise. People with obesity must get an average of 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical exercise to stop additional weight gain, or to keep off some weight. You may need in the future to increase gradually how much of exercise , as your fitness and endurance improve.
  • Maintain your movement. Even though regular aerobic exercise is the most effective method of burning calories and shed excess weight every extra activity helps in burning calories. Parking further away from entrances to stores and walk up the stairs instead of taking the elevator. A pedometer tracks the number of steps you walk during the course of the day. A lot of people strive to complete 10,000 steps per day. Gradually increase the number of steps you do each day to meet that goal.

Behavior alters

A program for behavior modification will help you make lifestyle changes to shed weight and maintain it off. The first step is to look at your lifestyle habits to discover what causes like stress or circumstances may have led to your weight gain.

  • Counseling. Talking with a mental health professional can help you address the emotional and behavioral issues that are related to food. The therapy can aid you to comprehend why you are eating too much and teach you ways to reduce anxiety. You will also learn to track your eating habits and activities understand the triggers for eating and manage cravings for food. Counseling can be conducted one-on-one or in groups.
  • Groups for support. You can find the camaraderie and support groups that have members who share similar struggles with weight loss. Consult your physician local hospitals, or your local hospital weight-loss programs to find support groups in your region.

Weight-loss medicine

Weight-loss medicines are designed to be used in conjunction with exercise, diet and lifestyle changes, not as a substitute for them. Before deciding on a treatment to treat you, your physician will look at your medical history as well as possible adverse consequences.

The most frequently used drugs that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of obesity comprise:

  • Bupropion-naltrexone (Contrave)
  • Liraglutide (Saxenda)
  • Orlistat (Alli, Xenical)
  • Phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia)

The weight-loss medication may not work for everyone, and its effects can diminish over time. If the time comes to stop using a weight loss medication, you could regain most or all the weight you have lost.

Endoscopic techniques to reduce weight

These procedures do not require incisions on the skin. Once you’re anesthetized Flexible tubes and tools are introduced through the mouth and then down the throat to the stomach. The most common procedures are:

  • Endoscopic gastroplasty with sleeve. This procedure involves stitching the stomach in order to reduce the amount of liquid and food your stomach holds at the same time. In time eating less and drinking less will help the typical individual shed weight.
  • Intragastric balloon to aid in weight reduction. In this procedure doctors insert a tiny balloon inside the stomach. It is filled up with liquid in order to reduce the size of the stomach. This will make you feel fuller and eat less.

Weight-loss surgery

Also called bariatric surgery weight loss surgery restricts how much food you’re able enjoy at a time or reduces the intake of calories and food. But, it can cause vitamin and nutritional deficiencies.

Weight-loss surgeries that are commonly used include

  • Flexible gastric banding. In this procedure an inflatable band divides from the stomach two pouches. The surgeon tightens the band like a belt to create a small space between the pouches. The band prevents the pouch from expanding, and is usually made to remain in place for the duration of time.
  • Surgery for gastric bypass. In gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y) surgeons creates a pouch on the very top inside the stomach. The small intestine then cut a little below the stomach’s main one and then connected to the pouch. The liquid and food flow straight from the pouch to this intestine, bypassing the majority parts of the stomach.
  • Gastric sleeves. In this procedure the stomach gets removed and creates an even smaller food reservoir. It’s less complex as compared to gastric bypass.

The success of weight loss after surgery is contingent on your determination to make lifestyle changes in your exercise and eating habits.

Other treatment options

to treat obesity are

  • Hydrogels. Available by prescription These capsules are edible and have tiny particles inside that absorb water and expand within the stomach, which can aid in feeling fuller. The capsules are consumed prior to meals and pass through the intestines in the stool.
  • Blockade of the vagal nerve. This involves implanting an instrument beneath the skin of the abdomen that transmits intermittent electrical signals to the vagus nerve in the abdomen that informs the brain that the stomach is feeling empty or full.
  • The gastric aspirate. In this procedure, the tube is inserted through the abdomen and into the stomach. A portion of stomach contents is flushed out at the end of every meal.

Lifestyle and home solutions for home and lifestyle

Your efforts to reduce weight will be more likely to succeed by following the strategies you employ at home in addition to your treatment program. These could include:

  • Understanding your health situation. Education about obesity will allow you to learn more about the causes of overweight and how you can tackle it. It can help you feel more confident to manage your weight and stick to your plan of treatment. Check out reputable self-help guides and discuss the subject with your doctor or your therapist.
  • Set achievable objectives. When you have to shed a significant amount of weight, it is possible to make goals that aren’t realistic like trying to lose weight in a short time. Don’t put yourself in a position to fail. Set weekly or daily goals for weight loss and exercise. Implement small changes to your diet rather than making radical changes that aren’t likely to maintain for long.
  • Staying true to your treatment program. Changing a lifestyle that you have been living for a long time isn’t easy. Discuss with your therapist, doctor or other health experts if you notice your goals for exercise or diet falling off. It is possible to work with them to develop new ideas or fresh methods.
  • Supporting yourself. Get your family and friends to join your weight loss goals. Make sure you have a network of people that are there to support you and assist you in your efforts. It is important to let them know how crucial weight loss is for your overall health. It is also possible to join a support group.
  • Keep a track of it. Keep a food and activity journal. This will assist you in staying accountable for your diet and exercise routine. It can help you identify habits that could be causing you to fall behind as well as the ones that work for you. You can also keep track of other vital health indicators like blood pressure, cholesterol levels, as well as your overall health.

Alternative medicine

Many dietary supplements promising to help you lose weight fast are on the market. The long-term efficacy and safety of these products are often uncertain.

Helping to cope and providing support

Consult your physician or therapist about enhancing your resilience and coping skills. Also, consider these suggestions to manage weight gain and lose weight:

  • Journal. Write in a journal to express sadness fear, anger, or any other emotion.
  • Connect. Don’t become isolated. Make sure you participate in activities regularly and have a get-together with your family or friends regularly.
  • Sign up. Join a support group to be able to connect with other people who face similar difficulties.
  • Concentrate. Stay focused on your objectives. The battle against obesity is an ongoing process. Be motivated by keeping your goals in your mind. Remember that you are responsible for your own health and pursuing your goals.
  • Relax. Learn relaxation and manage stress. Recognizing stress and gaining techniques for managing stress and relaxation will help you get rid of your unhealthy eating habits.

You are preparing for your appointment

Being open with your doctor and openly about your weight issues is among the most beneficial actions you can take to improve your health. In some instances, you could be recommended to an obesity expert in the event that one is in your local area. It is also possible to get referred to a behavior dietetic counselor.

What you can do

Being a part of your treatment is vital. One way to achieve this is to be prepared ahead for the appointment. Consider your needs and your goals in treatment. Make the list of questions you want you’d like to inquire about. These questions may include:

  • What activities or eating habits can be in contribute to health issues and weight increase?
  • What should I be doing to address my challenges in controlling my weight?
  • Do I have any other health problems due to being overweight?
  • Should I consult a dietitian?
  • Do I have to see a behavioral counselor with experience in weight loss?
  • What are the options for treatment for my obesity and other health issues?
  • Are weight-loss interventions an alternative for me?

Make sure you inform your doctor know of any medical issues that you may have or any medication or vitamins you are taking.

What can you expect from your physician

In your visit the doctor is most likely to inquire about a variety of questions concerning your weight, food habits activity, mood, thoughts, as well as any other symptoms you may have. You could be asked questions such as:

  • What did you weigh at the time of your high school?
  • What life events might have contributed to the weight increase?
  • How much and what do you eat on an average day?
  • What kind of activity can you expect to do in a day?
  • In what times of your life did you gain weight?
  • What factors do you think influence your weight?
  • How are your day-to-day activities significantly affected due to your weight?
  • What treatments or diets did you try to shed weight?
  • What are your goals for losing weight?
  • Are you willing to make some changes to your life to shed some weight?
  • What could hinder your weight loss?

What can you do during the interim

If you’re able to get time before your appointment time to prepare for your time by keeping a food diary for two weeks prior to your appointment. Record the number of steps you walk during the day, using an exercise counter (pedometer).

It is also possible to make decisions that will assist you in losing weight, such as:

  • Changes that are healthy to the way you eat. Include more fruits vegetables, whole grains, and fruits within your daily diet. Reduce portions.
  • Increase your level of activity. Try to get up and move around your house more often. Begin slowly if you’re not physically fit or familiar with the exercise. A walk of 10 minutes every day will help. If you suffer from any medical conditions or are at the age of a certain amount that is over 40 for men and more than 50 for women be sure to consult your doctor prior to beginning an exercise routine.

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