Diabetes | Symptoms Causes Risk factors Treatment Prevention


Diabetes mellitus, more commonly referred to as a metabolic condition that causes high blood sugar levels. The hormone insulin transports sugar from your blood into cells to be stored for later use or to create energy. When you have diabetes, your body isn’t producing enough insulin or isn’t able to effectively utilize the insulin it does produce.

Untreated high blood sugars may damage your eyes, nerves, kidneys, and many other organs.

Types of Diabetes

There are many different kinds of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The immune system destroys and attacks cells of the pancreas which is where insulin is created. It isn’t clear what triggers this attack. Around 10% of diabetics suffer from this type of attack.
  • Typ 2 diabetes is when your body is resistant in response to insulin and sugar builds into your blood.
  • Prediabetes is when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, however, it’s not sufficient to warrant the diagnose of diabetes type 2.
  • Gestational Diabetes is a condition that causes high blood sugar levels in pregnancy. The hormones that block insulin produced by the placenta can cause this kind of diabeties.

A rare disorder known as diabetic insipidus isn’t related to diabetes mellitus even though it shares a name. It’s a distinct condition where your kidneys drain too much water from your system.

Every type of diabetes has distinctive symptoms, causes, and treatments.

The signs of diabetes

The signs can be due to an increase in blood sugar levels.

General symptoms

The most common symptoms of diabetes are:

  • more food cravings
  • Increased thirst
  • weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • Vision blurry
  • Extreme fatigue
  • sores that won’t heal

The symptoms in men

In addition to the usual symptoms of diabetes, those suffering from diabeties might experience diminished sexual motivation, erectile dysfunction (ED), and weakness in their muscles.

Symptoms in women

Women suffering from diabetes are also susceptible to symptoms, such as bladder infections, yeast infections, and itchy, dry skin.

Type 1

Type 1 diabetes symptoms could be:

  • extreme hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • unintentional weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness

It could also trigger mood swings.

Type 2

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be:

  • more food cravings
  • Increased thirst
  • more frequent urine production
  • blurry vision
  • tiredness
  • sores that take time to heal

It could also lead to repeated infections. The reason for this is that elevated glucose levels make it more difficult for the body to heal itself.

Gestational diabetes

Many women with gestational diabetics do not show any signs. The condition is typically diagnosed in a blood sugar test or an oral glucose tolerance test which typically occurs between the 28th and 24th weeks gestation.

In rare instances, pregnant women with diabetes can also experience increased thirst or increased urination.

The causes of diabetes

Different causes are linked to the various forms of diabetes. There are different causes that can be associated with each type.

Type 1

Doctors don’t have a clear idea of the causes of type one diabetes. Somehow the immune system attacks and destroys beta cells that produce insulin inside the pancreas.

Genes could play a part in some individuals. It’s probable that the virus triggers off an immune system’s attack.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetics and lifestyle-related aspects. Obesity or overweight increases the risk. The extra weight you carry, particularly around your abdomen can make your cells more susceptible to the insulin effects on blood sugar levels.

The condition is prevalent within families. Families have genes that make them more likely to develop type 2 diabeties as well as to be overweight.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes results of hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. The placenta releases hormones that make the cells of a pregnant lady less tolerant to insulin’s effects. This could lead to an increase in blood sugar levels during pregnancy.

Females who’re obese when they are pregnant or gain weight during gestation have a higher risk to suffer from gestational diabeties.

Diabetes risk factors

Certain risk factors can increase your risk of developing diabetes.

Type 1

You’re more likely to develop type one diabetes when young or a teenager, have an adult or a sibling suffering from the condition or you have certain genes connected to the condition.

Type 2

Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes rises when you:

  • are overweight
  • Are aged 45 or older.
  • Have a sibling or parent who suffers from the condition.
  • Aren’t physically physically
  • I have experienced gestational diabeties
  • and am prediabetic.
  • Have hypertension, high cholesterol, or excessive triglycerides
  • are of African American, Hispanic or Latino American, Alaska Native, Pacific Islander, American Indian well as Asian American ancestry

Gestational diabetes

The risk of developing gestational diabetes is increased if:

  • are overweight
  • Are over the age of 25
  • had gestational diabeties during a past pregnancy
  • They have had an infant weighing more than 9lbs
  • There is an ancestral background of type 2 diabeties in the family.
  • are affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Diabetic complications

High blood sugar levels can damage tissues and organs all over your body. The more elevated your blood sugar as well as the more time you are on it, the higher your chance of suffering from complications.

The complications associated with diabetes are:

  • coronary condition, heart attack along with stroke
  • neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Retinopathy as well as sight loss
  • hearing loss
  • foot injury like infections and sores that won’t heal
  • dermatological conditions like fungal and bacterial as well as fungal infections
  • depression
  • dementia

Gestational diabetes

Diabetes gestational issues that are not controlled can result in problems that affect both baby and mother. Baby’s health issues could be:

  • premature birth
  • more-than-normal body weight when born
  • an increased risk of contracting Type 2 Diabetes later on in the course of
  • Blood sugar levels are low.
  • jaundice
  • stillbirth

Mothers can suffer from complications like excessive blood pressure ( preeclampsia) or type 2 diabetes. It is also possible that she will require Cesarean birth which is commonly known as C-sections.

The risk of a mother’s gestational diabeties during future pregnancy also rises.

Treatment for diabetes

The treatment for diabetes is provided by doctors using various medications. Some of these medicines are administered through the mouth and others are available in the form of injectables.

Type 1

Insulin is the primary therapy for diabetes type I. It is a replacement for the hormone that your body doesn’t have the ability to make.

There are four kinds of insulin that are frequently employed. They’re distinguished by how fast they begin to function, and also how long the effects last

  • A rapid-acting insulin is active within 15 minutes, and its effects last from up to 4 hours.
  • Short-acting insulin begins to work within 30 minutes and lasts up to 6-8 hours.
  • Intermediate-acting insulin is able to start working in between 1 and 2 hours and lasts between 12 and 18 hours.
  • Long-acting insulin begins to work just a few hours after the injection and can last for 24 hours or more.

Type 2

Exercise and diet can aid some people in managing the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. If lifestyle changes don’t suffice to decrease the blood sugar levels, you’ll require medications.

The drugs can lower blood sugar levels in a variety of ways:

It is possible that you will require several of these medicines. People with Type 2 Diabeties also use insulin.

Gestational diabetes

It is essential to check the level of your blood sugar frequently throughout pregnancy. If your blood sugar is elevated, dietary modifications and exercise could not suffice to lower it.

As per The Mayo Clinic, about 10-20 percent of women suffering from gestational diabetes need insulin to reduce their blood sugar levels. The use of insulin is not harmful to a growing baby.

Diet and diabetes

A healthy diet is a key aspect of controlling diabetes. In certain instances, the change in your diet might suffice to treat the condition.

Type 1

The level of blood sugar changes or declines depending on the kind of food you consume. Foods that are sugary or starchy cause blood sugar levels to increase quickly. Protein and fat trigger more gradual rises.

Your doctor may suggest that you reduce the number of carbs consumed every day. Also, you’ll need to keep a balance between your carb consumption with insulin doses.

Get a nutritionist who will help you create your diabeties specific diet plan. Finding the ideal combination of fat, protein, and carbohydrates will help you manage your blood sugar level. Read this guide on starting the type 1 diabetes diet.

Type 2

Consuming the right kinds of food can help regulate your blood sugar levels and assist you in losing any excess weight.

The carb count is an essential aspect of eating right for Type 2 Diabetes. Dietitians can assist you to determine how many grams of carbohydrates you need to consume in each meal.

To maintain glucose levels in check ensure that you consume smaller meals during the course of your day. Focus on healthy food choices, such as:

  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • lean protein like fish and poultry
  • healthy fats, such as walnuts and olive oil

Certain other foods could undermine attempts to maintain your blood sugar under control. Discover the foods to stay clear of if you suffer from diabeties.

Gestational diabetes

A balanced diet is essential for your baby and you during the first nine months. Making the right choices in your food will also allow you to avoid the use of diabetes medication.

Take note of the size of your portions and try to limit salty or sugary food items. Although you will need sugar to nourish your growing child you must be careful not to eat excessively.

You should think about creating an eating plan using the guidance of a nutritionist or dietitian. They’ll make sure that your diet includes the proper mix of macronutrients. Check out these other tips and don’ts of healthy eating in the case of gestational diabetics.

Diabetes diagnosis

Anyone who is suffering from diabetics or has a risk of developing the condition should undergo a test. Women are regularly tested for gestational diabetes in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Doctors use tests for blood to determine if they are prediabetic and diabetes

  • Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test is a way to measure the blood sugar levels after having gone without eating for eight hours.
  • The A1C test gives you a picture of the levels of your blood sugar during the past three months.

To determine if you have gestational diabetes, your doctor will examine you for glucose levels in the 28th and 24th weeks of your pregnancy.

  • In the glucose challenge test, the blood sugar levels are checked one hour after drinking an alcohol-rich drink.
  • During the three-hour test for glucose tolerance, Your blood sugar level is measured after you’ve fasted for a night and after drinking the sugary liquid.

The earlier you are identified with the disease, the earlier you can begin treatment. Find out if you should undergo a test, and find more information about the tests that your doctor could perform.

Diabetes prevention

Type 1 diabetes isn’t curable due to an immune system. The reasons for type 2 diabetes-like genetics and age are not within your control.

Many other risk factors are manageable. Most diabeties prevention strategies entail making minor adjustments to your eating habits and fitness routine.

If you’ve been diagnosed as having prediabeties there are a few steps that you could do in order to help delay or avoid Type 2 diabetes

  • Make sure you get at the minimum, 150 minutes a week in cardiovascular exercise including cycling or walking. bicycle.
  • Reduce fats that are saturated as well as trans fats, in addition to the refined carbs and refined carbohydrates from your diet.
  • Consume More fruits vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
  • Consume smaller portions.
  • Do your best to shed seven percent or more of the weight you carry, if you’re overweight or overweight.

They’re not the only methods to avoid diabeties. Find out more strategies that can aid you in avoiding this chronic disease.

Pregnancy and diabetes

Women who have never been diagnosed with diabeties may suddenly develop gestational diabetes while pregnant. The hormones released by the placenta could cause your body to be more susceptible to insulin effects.

Women who suffered from diabeties before conception carry it into the pregnancy. This is known as pre-gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes will go away when you have your baby, but it can significantly increase your chance of getting the disease later.

Around half of the women who suffer from gestational diabetes be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in the first 5-10 years after delivery according to the International Diabeties Federation (IDF).

If you are pregnant and have diabeties, it can cause problems for your baby, like jaundice or breathing issues.

In the event that you’re diagnosed with gestational or pre-gestational diabeties, you’ll require specialized monitoring to avoid complications. Learn more about the impact that diabeties has on pregnancy.

Children and diabetes

Children can develop both type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes. The control of blood sugar is particularly important for children, as the disease can cause damage to vital organs like the kidneys and heart.

Type 1

The type of diabetes that is autoimmune typically begins in the early years of childhood. One of the primary symptoms is an increase in the frequency of urine output. Children with type 1 diabetes can be prone to urinating on their beds once they’ve completed their toilet training.

Excessive thirst, fatigue, and hunger are all symptoms of the disease. It’s crucial that children with type 1 diabetes are treated promptly. The disease may cause excessive blood sugar levels and dehydration, which could be a medical emergency situation.

Type 2

Type 1 diabetes was previously described as “juvenile diabetes” because type 2 was extremely rare among children. Nowadays, as more and more children are obese or overweight Type two diabetes has become more prevalent within this age range.

Around 40 percent of children who suffer from type 2 diabetes do not suffer from symptoms, according to the Mayo Clinic. The condition is usually discovered during a physical examination.

Type 2 diabetes that is not properly treated can lead to life-long complications such as kidney disease, heart disease blindness, and kidney disease. A healthy diet and regular exercise will help your child control their blood sugar and help prevent these complications.

The type 2 form of diabeties has become now more common than ever before in young people. Find out how to recognize the indicators so that you can bring them to your child’s physician.


Certain kinds of diabetes like type 1is caused by circumstances outside your control. Other types — such as type 2 are preventable with smart eating habits, more exercise, and loss of weight.

Discuss possible diabeties-related risks with your physician about potential diabeties risks. If you’re in danger, get your blood sugar checked and follow the advice of your doctor regarding controlling your blood sugar levels.

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